CONSTRUCTION OF BOMB SHELTERS: ADAPTED USSR STANDARDS OR EXPERIENCE OF ISRAEL?
The issue of arranging bomb shelters is one of the fundamental issues in the reconstruction program of Ukraine. Should Ukraine rely on past regulatory acts, which are usually taken as a basis?
The UVT GROUP team involved Israeli specialists in order to obtain qualified explanations regarding the construction of bomb shelters and dual purpose shelters. A working group is created to approach the issue of designing and building these objects in the most qualified manner.
Interviewer: Andriy Antonenko (A.A.), director of UVT GROUP .
Respondent: Beni Altshul (B.A.), former employee of the engineering service of the Home Front Command in 1993-2022 .
A.A. : As far as I know, the existing working groups on bomb shelters and shelters are working on amendments to the building code. They went the traditional way, taking the Soviet building regulations and began translating them into Ukrainian, supplementing them with regulations. I think that relying on the old Soviet building code is at least irrelevant. We would like to go another way — to take as a basis the the regulatory framework, calculations and experience of Israel.
B. A .: The Soviet building regulations is not entirely correct, it is focused on the construction of atomic bomb shelters, but we need to prepare not for an atomic war, the current situation is different, the tasks are different.
A.A.: Recently, the President of Ukraine signed a law according to which there should be a bomb shelter under every house. What is the approach used in Israel?
B.A.: Until 1993 Israel built bomb shelters under every new house. But the system they switched to in 1993 turned out to be much more effective and justified itself. It provides that one of the rooms in each apartment is equipped as a bomb shelter. Armored rooms provide no more than two outer walls, window, an iron door and ventilation, its minimum area is calculated. It requires, of course, additional costs, but they justify themselves totally. Firstly, the stability of the building is completely different, and secondly, Israel has given great concessions to interested contractors.
There was a precedent in the 2000s, when they decided that peace had come and there was no need to build more bomb shelters and temporarily canceled this decision, and the contractors were the first to make noise.
The state does not comprise this armored room in the development percentage and it is not taxable. When the right of ownership is obtained, it is like an additional room for nothing. A 3-room apartment turns into a 4-room apartment at the same percentage and the same details, and this was a big boost.
This approach justifies itself — it’s an ordinary living room in an apartment that can be used for everything. And in case of one bomb shelter in the house many questions arise – firstly, it takes time to go down there, to get it quickly, secondly – it is necessary to monitor it, usually they turn into warehouses, dirty places.
In Israel the construction of bomb shelters for 3-story buildings, where you can quickly get to, is still allowed. During the construction of tall buildings, the entire system of stairs and landings is concrete-vertical, all elevator shafts and common areas are concrete. Thus, before the entrance to the apartments the core inside the building is completely made of concrete — a vertical rod, the total area of which occupies 25-30% of the entire building.
Currently the UVT GROUP team is actively studying world experience that can be applied in the reconstruction of Ukrainian cities, including discussing the concept of “Healthy Cities” with Dutch specialists.